Microsoft to launch Windows Phone 7 this year

Microsoft plans to launch Windows Phone 7 in India this year. The software major’s India development centre has fine-tuned the innovative applications of the search engine Bing for its global launch in April, an official said here Wednesday.

“It will be in a few months but the date has not yet been decided,” Amit Chatterjee, managing director of Microsoft India Development Centre (MSIDC), told reporters.

He did not agree that Windows Phone 7 already launched abroad is heavy and slow. “A number of products are to suit the demands of a billion satisfied customers all around the world. We are making all efforts to give them a brand new visual experience,” he said.

He said the device allows Microsoft to bring together its assets like Office, Explorer and search engine Bing. The applications range from simple to those with more work flow.

Windows Phone 7 has already been launched in the US and other countries with its global partner HTC . The device may be available in India for Rs.35,000.

Windows Phone 7 and Bing are two of the eight focus areas of MSIDC.

The centre is also focusing on TV, Iphone, Xbox, cloud computing, mobile office, and enterprise related applications.

Chattterjee, who recently succeeded Srini Koppulu as the MD, termed Bing as a decision engine, quite different from the other search engines.

On cloud computing, Chatterjee said it offered great opportunity and MSIDC has a team focusing only on cloud computing.

Stating that MSIDC is also working on a few India-specific applications in addressing the issues of mobility, Chatterjee said the centre has contributed to 270 patents filed during last five years.

He denied that Microsoft downsizing workforce elsewhere had any impact on MSIDC here. “We will continue our robust campus hiring. We will continue to recruit 150 to 170 graduates every year from the campuses across India,” he said.

One of Microsoft’s largest product development centres outside Redmond, MSIDC along with its Bangalore unit has a strong team of 1650 employees and is developing new products and technologies for the global Microsoft portfolio.

Mozilla Firefox 7 coming in 2011!

It seems Mozilla has been inspired by more than just Chrome’s UI! According to the new roadmap laid out by Mozilla for the year 2011, Firefox 4 is just the first “major” release to come this year, and will be followed in quick succession by Firefox 5, 6 and 7 all releasing in 2011.

This 3-month release cycle is similar to the model Google Chrome used to follow, and abandoned for an even faster 6-week release cycle.

This might seems kind of odd since Firefox 4 has been in beta longer than 3 months! However this perhaps is the point, to have fewer features delivered faster rather than many features delivered after long waits and extended beta testing periods.

Other than just the dry fact that there will be 4 FIrefox releases in 2011, Mozilla has also revealed some information about what direction these releases will take. The priorities for Firefox 4 remain the same, and some basic targets such as making Firefox more responsive ‒ such that the delay between a click and action should never be more than 50ms ‒ improving stability, and performing “optimizations to hide network latency ” shall continue to be important even after Firefox 4.

Mozilla also has plans for some major new features throughout the year (according to the Mozilla Firefox roadmap)

  • Firefox 5:
    • Account Manager
    • Simple Sharing UI
    • UI Animation
    • 64 Bit on Windows
  • FIrefox 6:
    • Web Applications
    • FasterCache
    • OSX 10.7
    • JS Optimizations
  • Firefox 7:
    • Electrolysis
    • deXBLification

Of course these releases are still a little far away, and the immediate goal is Firefox 4. The roadmap is likely to change, and in fact the Firefox 7 is still tentative (with “?” marks after the features).

Some of these features such as simple sharing are already available in the form of add-ons. The F1 project by Mozilla Messaging makes it easy to share links from Firefox by connecting to a variety of services. This is similar to how Firefox Sync and FIrefox Panorama, both integral parts of FIrefox 4 initially emerged as add-ons. The account manager too is available as an add-on and was initially a part of Weave itself ‒ more information on account manager is available here.

64-bit builds for Windows are already available for pre-release versions of Firefox, and with Firefox 5 will probably be a part of the stable release.

The Web Applications standard that Mozilla plans to integrate in Firefox 6 is also available for public perusal.

Electrolysis (e10s) is Mozilla’s project to make Firefox run each tab and add-on in a separate process to make to less crash-prone and more secure.

2011 seems like a big year for Mozilla; Firefox 4 is already one of their most significant releases, and it seems that Mozilla has significant changes planned this year. After unsettling Internet Explorer over the last few years, Mozilla now has new challenges to face, and it seems to be taking the best lessons from how other browsers work. In true open source fashion, by not solving a problems that has already been solved.

Facebook becoming more secure

HOUSTON: In order to stay safe and protect users from getting hacked, the popular social networking site Facebook is rolling out a new set of security features.

Facebook, with over 500-million members, has added the ability for users to login and surf the site using a more secure encrypted connection, known as HTTPS.

The encryption is the same used on shopping and banking websites to secure connections, and was previously used on Facebook when passwords are checked.

“Starting today we’ll provide you with the ability to experience Facebook entirely over HTTPS. You should consider enabling this option if you frequently use Facebook from public Internet access points found at coffee shops, airports, libraries or schools,” the company said in a blog post.

Facebook noted that the site may function more slowly using HTTPS, and some features, including many third-party applications, don’t currently support HTTPS.

In addition to the added encryption, Facebook said it will now also offer “social authentification,” a unique form of the traditional “captcha” coding that will ask a user to identify Facebook friends from their photos.

The two new security features promise to prevent Wi-Fi hackers from fraudulently accessing accounts.

Facebook already uses HTTPS when users log into an external site through Facebook Connect.

Your password, which gets sent back to Facebook from the third party site, remains encrypted.

This will now be extended to user activity within the site itself.

IT experts can already overcome internet security issues by adding third-party security measures and forcing an encrypted connection.

However, Facebook’s decision to make full-session encryption a default setting for all users will remove the burden from those that are less aware of Wi-Fi hackers.

Facebook uses captchas to authenticate users when they log in from a country that is not associated with their account.

However, this is now being replaced in favour of a new photo-matching system.

Users will be faced with three photos of one of their Facebook friends, and will have to correctly identify them from a list of six friends’ names.

“Hackers halfway across the world might know your password, but they don’t know who your friends are,” says Facebook engineer Alex Rice.

Rice admits inevitable drawbacks to the new security measures.

Page loading speed will take a hit under HTTPS and many third-party apps are not HTTPS enabled.

Social network users that that collect friends by the thousand may also have difficulty identifying photos of friends at random, and friends who have cartoons or ‘lookalikes’ tagged under their name could be unidentifiable.

HTTP settings will not change automatically, so users can opt in or out of the new feature.


HTML tags (otherwise known as “HTML elements“), and their respective attributes are used to create HTML documents so that you can view them in browsers and other user agents. Note that not all browsers/user agents support all HTML tags and their attributes, so you should try to test your pages in as many browsers as you can.

Complete list of HTML tags

Below is a complete list of HTML tags from the HTML 4.01 specification. The HTML tags are listed alphabetically to help you quickly find the tag you’re looking for (or to find out whether it exists or not!).

.NET Framework

The Microsoft .NET Framework is a software framework for Microsoft Windows operating systems. It includes a large library, and it supports several programming languages which allows language interoperability (each language can use code written in other languages). The .NET library is available to all the programming languages that .NET supports.

The framework’s Base Class Library provides user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications. The class library is used by programmers, who combine it with their own code to produce applications.

Programs written for the .NET Framework execute in a software (as contrasted to hardware) environment, known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR). The CLR is an application virtual machine so that programmers need not consider the capabilities of the specific CPU that will execute the program. The CLR also provides other important services such as security, memory management, and exception handling. The class library and the CLR together constitute the .NET Framework.

The .NET Framework is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform. In order to be able to develop and not just run applications, it is required to have Microsoft’s SDK for Windows 7 or .NET Framework 4 (or newer) or Visual Studio 2010 installed on your computer.



Principal design features


Because computer systems commonly require interaction between new and older applications, the .NET Framework provides means to access functionality that is implemented in programs that execute outside the .NET environment. Access to COM components is provided in the System.Runtime.InteropServices and System.EnterpriseServices namespaces of the framework; access to other functionality is provided using the P/Invoke feature.
Common Runtime Engine
The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is the execution engine of the .NET Framework. All .NET programs execute under the supervision of the CLR, guaranteeing certain properties and behaviors in the areas of memory management, security, and exception handling.
Language Independence
The .NET Framework introduces a Common Type System, or CTS. The CTS specification defines all possible datatypes and programming constructs supported by the CLR and how they may or may not interact with each other conforming to the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) specification. Because of this feature, the .NET Framework supports the exchange of types and object instances between libraries and applications written using any conforming .NET language.
Base Class Library
The Base Class Library (BCL), part of the Framework Class Library (FCL), is a library of functionality available to all languages using the .NET Framework. The BCL provides classes which encapsulate a number of common functions, including file reading and writing, graphic rendering, database interaction, XML document manipulation and so on.
Simplified Deployment
The .NET Framework includes design features and tools that help manage the installation of computer software to ensure that it does not interfere with previously installed software, and that it conforms to security requirements.
The design is meant to address some of the vulnerabilities, such as buffer overflows, that have been exploited by malicious software. Additionally, .NET provides a common security model for all applications.
The design of the .NET Framework allows it theoretically to be platform agnostic, and thus cross-platform compatible. That is, a program written to use the framework should run without change on any type of system for which the framework is implemented. While Microsoft has never implemented the full framework on any system except Microsoft Windows, the framework is engineered to be platform agnostic,[2] and cross-platform implementations are available for other operating systems (see Silverlight and the Alternative implementations section below). Microsoft submitted the specifications for the Common Language Infrastructure (which includes the core class libraries, Common Type System, and the Common Intermediate Language),[3][4][5] the C# language,[6] and the C++/CLI language[7] to both ECMA and the ISO, making them available as open standards. This makes it possible for third parties to create compatible implementations of the framework and its languages on other platforms.


Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)
 Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)

The purpose of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), is to provide a language-neutral platform for application development and execution, including functions for Exception handling, Garbage Collection, security, and interoperability. By implementing the core aspects of the .NET Framework within the scope of the CLI, this functionality will not be tied to a single language but will be available across the many languages supported by the framework. Microsoft’s implementation of the CLI is called the Common Language Runtime, or CLR.


Main article: .NET assembly

The CIL code is housed in .NET assemblies. As mandated by specification, assemblies are stored in the Portable Executable (PE) format, common on the Windows platform for all DLL and EXE files. The assembly consists of one or more files, one of which must contain the manifest, which has the metadata for the assembly. The complete name of an assembly (not to be confused with the filename on disk) contains its simple text name, version number, culture, and public key token. The public key token is a unique hash generated when the assembly is compiled, thus two assemblies with the same public key token are guaranteed to be identical from the point of view of the framework.[dubiousdiscuss] A private key can also be specified known only to the creator of the assembly and can be used for strong naming and to guarantee that the assembly is from the same author when a new version of the assembly is compiled (required to add an assembly to the Global Assembly Cache).


Main article: .NET metadata

All CIL is self-describing through .NET metadata. The CLR checks the metadata to ensure that the correct method is called. Metadata is usually generated by language compilers but developers can create their own metadata through custom attributes. Metadata contains information about the assembly, and is also used to implement the reflective programming capabilities of .NET Framework.


.NET has its own security mechanism with two general features: Code Access Security (CAS), and validation and verification. Code Access Security is based on evidence that is associated with a specific assembly. Typically the evidence is the source of the assembly (whether it is installed on the local machine or has been downloaded from the intranet or Internet). Code Access Security uses evidence to determine the permissions granted to the code. Other code can demand that calling code is granted a specified permission. The demand causes the CLR to perform a call stack walk: every assembly of each method in the call stack is checked for the required permission; if any assembly is not granted the permission a security exception is thrown.

When an assembly is loaded the CLR performs various tests. Two such tests are validation and verification. During validation the CLR checks that the assembly contains valid metadata and CIL, and whether the internal tables are correct. Verification is not so exact. The verification mechanism checks to see if the code does anything that is ‘unsafe’. The algorithm used is quite conservative; hence occasionally code that is ‘safe’ does not pass. Unsafe code will only be executed if the assembly has the ‘skip verification’ permission, which generally means code that is installed on the local machine.

.NET Framework uses Application Domains as a mechanism for isolating code running in a process. Application Domains can be created and code can be loaded into or unloaded from them independent of other Application Domains. This helps increase the fault tolerance of the application, as faults or crashes in one Application Domain do not affect the rest of the application. Application Domains can also be configured independently with different security privileges. This can help increase the security of the application by isolating potentially unsafe code. The developer, however, has to split the application into subdomains; it is not done by the CLR.

Namespaces in the BCL[8]
System. CodeDom
System. Collections
System. Diagnostics
System. Globalization
System. IO
System. Resources
System. Text
System. Text.RegularExpressions

The .NET Framework includes a set of standard class libraries. The class library is organized in a hierarchy of namespaces. Most of the built in APIs are part of either System.* or Microsoft.* namespaces. These class libraries implement a large number of common functions, such as file reading and writing, graphic rendering, database interaction, and XML document manipulation, among others. The .NET class libraries are available to all CLI compliant languages. The .NET Framework class library is divided into two parts: the Base Class Library and the Framework Class Library.

The Base Class Library (BCL) includes a small subset of the entire class library and is the core set of classes that serve as the basic API of the Common Language Runtime.[8] The classes in mscorlib.dll and some of the classes in System.dll and System.core.dll are considered to be a part of the BCL. The BCL classes are available in both .NET Framework as well as its alternative implementations including .NET Compact Framework, Microsoft Silverlight and Mono.

The Framework Class Library (FCL) is a superset of the BCL classes and refers to the entire class library that ships with .NET Framework. It includes an expanded set of libraries, including Windows Forms, ADO.NET, ASP.NET, Language Integrated Query, Windows Presentation Foundation, Windows Communication Foundation among others. The FCL is much larger in scope than standard libraries for languages like C++, and comparable in scope to the standard libraries of Java.

 Memory management

The .NET Framework CLR frees the developer from the burden of managing memory (allocating and freeing up when done); instead it does the memory management itself. To this end, the memory allocated to instantiations of .NET types (objects) is done contiguously[9] from the managed heap, a pool of memory managed by the CLR. As long as there exists a reference to an object, which might be either a direct reference to an object or via a graph of objects, the object is considered to be in use by the CLR. When there is no reference to an object, and it cannot be reached or used, it becomes garbage. However, it still holds on to the memory allocated to it. .NET Framework includes a garbage collector which runs periodically, on a separate thread from the application’s thread, that enumerates all the unusable objects and reclaims the memory allocated to them.

The .NET Garbage Collector (GC) is a non-deterministic, compacting, mark-and-sweep garbage collector. The GC runs only when a certain amount of memory has been used or there is enough pressure for memory on the system. Since it is not guaranteed when the conditions to reclaim memory are reached, the GC runs are non-deterministic. Each .NET application has a set of roots, which are pointers to objects on the managed heap (managed objects). These include references to static objects and objects defined as local variables or method parameters currently in scope, as well as objects referred to by CPU registers.[9] When the GC runs, it pauses the application, and for each object referred to in the root, it recursively enumerates all the objects reachable from the root objects and marks them as reachable. It uses .NET metadata and reflection to discover the objects encapsulated by an object, and then recursively walk them. It then enumerates all the objects on the heap (which were initially allocated contiguously) using reflection. All objects not marked as reachable are garbage.[9] This is the mark phase.[10] Since the memory held by garbage is not of any consequence, it is considered free space. However, this leaves chunks of free space between objects which were initially contiguous. The objects are then compacted together to make used memory contiguous again.[9][10] Any reference to an object invalidated by moving the object is updated to reflect the new location by the GC.[10] The application is resumed after the garbage collection is over.

The GC used by .NET Framework is actually generational.[11] Objects are assigned a generation; newly created objects belong to Generation 0. The objects that survive a garbage collection are tagged as Generation 1, and the Generation 1 objects that survive another collection are Generation 2 objects. The .NET Framework uses up to Generation 2 objects.[11] Higher generation objects are garbage collected less frequently than lower generation objects. This helps increase the efficiency of garbage collection, as older objects tend to have a larger lifetime than newer objects.[11] Thus, by removing older (and thus more likely to survive a collection) objects from the scope of a collection run, fewer objects need to be checked and compacted.[11]

Common Language Runtime

The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is a core component of Microsoft’s .NET initiative. It is Microsoft’s implementation of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) standard, which defines an execution environment for program code. In the CLR, code is expressed in a form of bytecode called the Common Intermediate Language (CIL, previously known as MSIL—Microsoft Intermediate Language).

CLR diag.svg

Developers using the CLR write code in a language such as C# or VB.NET. At compile time, a .NET compiler converts such code into CIL code. At runtime, the CLR’s just-in-time compiler converts the CIL code into code native to the operating system. Alternatively, the CIL code can be compiled to native code in a separate step prior to runtime by using the Native Image Generator (NGEN). This speeds up all later runs of the software as the CIL-to-native compilation is no longer necessary.

Although some other implementations of the Common Language Infrastructure run on non-Windows operating systems, Microsoft’s .NET Framework implementation runs only on Microsoft Windows operating systems.


The CLR allows programmers to ignore many details of the specific CPU that will execute the program. It also provides other important services, including the following:

Hows life at Google – watch the vedio


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